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1. Subject matter of manuscripts and types of submissions

Manuscripts should provide creative insights into aspects of radiology that contribute to medical diagnosis and treatment. Manuscripts include original articles, reviews, case reports, pictorial essays, special communication (requested by Editorial Board), editor's comments, and letters to the editors. Neither manuscripts submitted nor manuscripts substantially similar to the submitted material may be published elsewhere. Multiple or duplicate publications are allowed only under the condition they meet the Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals (Ann Intern Med 1997;126;36-47) or the uniform requirements for manuscripts submitted to biomedical journals (Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology 1999;38:751-761). The review and processes regarding research ethics including ethics policy, plagiarism, duplicate publication, and research misconduct are carried out based on the 'Good Publication Practice Guidelines for Medical Journals ( http://kamje.or.kr/publishing_ethics.html )' established by the Korean Association of Medical Journal Editors. It is recommended that no more than 9 authors be included for each manuscript. When a manuscript is given a decision of "publication without revision", authors cannot be added norcan the list of first authors and corresponding authors be revised. In the event that an author would like to be excluded from the list of authors, a signed letter must be sent on the author's own behalf. In order to change the order of authorship, agreement letters from each author must be submitted.

2. Languages and units of measurement

Manuscripts should be written in Korean or English. Medical terminology should be translated according to the Medical terminology most recently published by the Korean Medical Association. Proper nouns, drug names, units, and other medical terms lacking appropriate translations should be expressed in their native terminology. If translation of these terms fail to provide their meaning explicitly, translations should include their corresponding native terminology in parentheses when each term is introduced for the first time in a manuscript, and thereafter, referring to these terms solely by their translations is enough. Terms should be spelled out upon first mention and then abbreviated in parentheses. Use of English abbreviations is not recommended unless it is imperative. English abbreviations of Korean terms should be expressed as follows: Example) 전산화단층촬영 (computed tomography; CT) Length, height, weight, and volume should be given in metric units and temperature should be provided in Celsius. The International System of Units (SI) should be used for radiological, hematological, and clinicochemical measurement (JAMA 1986; 255:2329-2339).

3. Submission to the Journal

All manuscripts should be submitted electronically by accessing the Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology's online submission site ( http://submit.radiology.or.kr/ ). Manuscripts must be uploaded in Microsoft Word (.doc), Hangul (.hwp), or PDF (.pdf) formats. Manuscript files should include a title, abstract, an indexed list of terms, the full text of manuscript, tables, references, and figure captions. Authors, institutional affiliations, and acknowledgements should be included during submission of the final version of a manuscript which is ready for publication, rather than a manuscript's initial submission. All authors should sign the copyright agreement (which may be copied from -> page 105 of the journal or downloaded from the homepage) as well as the final checklist which must be sent to The Korean Society of Radiology via mail or fax:

The Korean Society of Radiology
71 Yangjaecheon-ro, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-891
(121-8 Yangjae-dong)
Phone: (02)578-8003, Fax: (02)529-7113
e-mail address: office@radiology.or.kr

4. Peer review and acceptance of manuscripts

All submitted manuscripts are subjected to peer review for appropriateness of publication. More than 2 experts in the field, review board or editor board will review the submitted manuscripts. Based upon results this review, acceptance of these manuscripts is determined and authors may be asked for further revision or modification.

5. General instructions for manuscript preparation

1) Abstract: The abstract must be written in both Korean and English on separate pages limited upto 600 and 200 words, respectively. The abstract should be a clear and concise one-paragraph summary providing the objectives of the study, materials and methods, significant results, and major conclusions supported by detailed data.

2) Introduction: The objectives of the study should be explained clearly and concisely. The introduction should include a brief review of pertinent work and the objectives of these related studies.

3) Materials and Methods: This section should be structured in the following order: study plan, materials, and methods. Sufficient details should be provided as to how diagnosis of subject patients was confirmed and how the analysis was carried out. If methods are the main focus, sufficient details should be provided so as to enabling the work done in the study can be repeated.

4) Results: Results should be presented clearly with a logical flow. In the case of experimental research, statistical analysis should be done for biological measurements as variation is common in measured values. When tables are used, only significant trends and results should be stated in the results section without unnecessary repetition of the contents in the tables.

5) Discussion: This section should include discussion of results as well as interpretations associated with other pertinent studies. Novel and significant results should be highlighted without redundant information that may be found in the introduction and results. Implications of the findings and limitations of the study should be provided as well. The conclusion and objectives of the study should be commensurate and limited to the scope that is afforded by the results of the study. A conclusion based on the results should be given in the last paragraph.

6. Authors's checklist

The information below should be confirmed when submitting the final checklist.

1) General information

ㆍ The manuscript should be assembled in the following sequence: title, subtitle, abstracts, introduction, materials and methods, results, discussion, acknowledgments, references, tables, and figure captions.
ㆍ Manuscripts should be single-spaced with 3 cm margins at the left, upper, and bottom of an A4 sheet size (21 × 30 cm).
ㆍ All manuscripts must be numbered consecutively starting from the abstract page. The names of authors and institutional affiliations should not appear after the abstract page of the manuscript.
ㆍ Utilization of English abbreviations should be minimized. If used, they should be spelled out on first use with the associated abbreviation given in parentheses.
ㆍ For devices and drugs, manufacturer, city, and country should be listed in parentheses.
ㆍ References should be cited after the names of authors or at the end of sentences by denoting a number in parentheses.

2) Title page

ㆍ In the title page, the titles of manuscripts and the names and affiliations of all authors should be included in both Korean and English. In the case of foreign authors, they may be written in English only.
If the affiliations of authors are different, the authors affiliated in the institution where most of the research took place should be marked with a superscript 1 and the superscript should be given at the end of the title as well. The authors affiliated in other institutions should be marked starting with superscript 2 and the institutional affiliations should be listed in numerical order. Addresses, phone numbers, fax numbers, and email addresses of corresponding authors should be provided at the bottom of the title page in English. Sources of financial supports should be listed if necessary.
ㆍ On the subtitle page, only the title of the manuscript, in both Korean and English, should be written; this should exclude the names of authors and their affiliations.

3) Abstract

ㆍ In the case of a Korean manuscript, an abstract should be provided in Korean and English on page 1 and page 2, respectively. For English manuscripts, this order should be in reverse.
ㆍ Manuscripts should be adhere to the following structure:
Purpose: Purpose should include reasons for carrying out this work and its main objectives clearly and concisely in 1 or 2 sentences. The objectives listed in this section should be in concordance with those stated in the title and introduction.
Materials and Methods: Experimental methods carried out to achieve the objectives of the study should be described here in detail. The specific method of data collection, data analysis, and bias adjustments should be provided sufficiently.
Results: The results of the work should be presented in a logical fashion by providing detailed data.
Conclusion: The conclusions of the work should be provide in 1 or 2 sentence according with the study objectives. ㆍ Abbreviations and reference citations are not allowed.
ㆍ 5 MeSH words registered in the MEDLINE/PubMed database should be selected and included at the bottom of the English abstract.

4) References

ㆍ References should be listed on new pages and numbered in the order in which they are cited in the text.
ㆍ Listed references must be cited in the text.
ㆍ Unpublished data is not permissible for citation as reference. If absolutely necessary, appropriate disclosure must be made in text using parentheses: e.g., "(Gildong Hong, personal communication)" or "(Gildong Hong, unpublished data)".
ㆍ Journal names should be listed using authorized abbreviations provided by Index Medicus.
ㆍ Each author should be listed up to a maximum of 6; if the number of authors exceeds 6, only the first 6 authors should be listed followed by the denotation "et al.".
ㆍ Korean authors should be listed last name first followed by their first names. The first letter of each first name should be capitalized for foreign authors following their last names.
ㆍ The start and end pages of citations should be provided.
ㆍ It is recommended that the number of references be limited to 40 for original work, 60 for review articles, and 10 for pictorial essays and case reports.
ㆍ The format for references is described below:

Journal articles

1. Lee SA, Jung HH, Lee SH, Cha SH, Jas BK, Seo BK, et al. Venogram with the tourniquet technique for the evaluation of central vein patency: comparison to conventional CO2 venogram. Korean J Radiol 2011;65:61-68 2. Lim SJ, Choo KS, Park YH, Kim JS, Kim JH, Chun KJ, et al. Assessment of left ventricular function and volume in patients undergoing 128-slice coronary CT angiography with ECG-based maximum tube current modulation: a comparison with echocardiography. Korean J Radiol 2011;12:156-162

Books

3. Kang HS, Resnick D. MRI of the extremities: an anatomic atlas. Philadelphia: Saunders, 1991:62-79

Chapters in books

4. Choi BI. Comparison of different imaging techniques. In Livraghi T, Makuuchi M, Buscarini L. Diagnosis and treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. London: Greenwich Medical Media, 1997:201-219

5) Tables

ㆍ Tables should be provided in Arabic numerals and English. The title of each table should be stated concisely using phrases or clauses. The first letter of nouns and adjectives should be capitalized.
ㆍ Vertical lines must not be used and excessive utilization of horizontal lines is not recommended for tables.
ㆍ Tables should include more than 4 lines of data and occupy less than 1 page.
ㆍ Tables should be numbered consecutively in order of their citation in text.
ㆍ When abbreviations are used, they should be spelled out at the bottom of their corresponding tables.
ㆍ When annotation is necessary, symbols should be used in the order *, †, ‡, §, ∥, ¶, **, ††, and ‡‡ with their explanations included in footnotes at the bottom of the table.
ㆍ Tables should be easy to understand and self-explanatory.
ㆍ Tables similar to other tables that have been published prior elsewhere may not be used.

6) Figures

ㆍ When there are more than 2 figures under the same number, they should be differentiated by a letter after each Arabic number (Example: Fig. 1A, Fig. 1B).
ㆍ Figures should be explained by phrases after the Arabic numbers of each figure. Findings observed in each figure (figure A, B, and C) should be stated in present tense. Findings and operations that are not exhibited in a figure should be presented in the past tense.
ㆍ The use of arrows and arrowheads in figures is strongly recommended to explain findings in figures more clearly. Magnification should be provided in cases where findings are microscopic.
ㆍ A new figure number should be provided for each designated patient: i.e., multiple patients should not be included under the same figure number.
ㆍ Line drawings should be done clearly and professionally with black lines against white backgrounds.
ㆍ When citing figures that are already published, written agreement should be obtained from their original authors.
ㆍ Authors may provide opinions regarding the arrangement of figures, if considered necessary.
ㆍ Only jpg files can be uploaded. These files should be 300 dpi and 5 × 7 inches (13 × 18 cm) approximately. Multiple figures under a single number should be prepared likewise according to these standards.

7. Submission of revised manuscripts

When submitting revised manuscripts, authors should send a file with a response to all reviewers' comments to the Editor in Chief and specify changes made to the manuscript.

8. Journals are issued on the first day of every month. 9. Publication fee

Authors whose manuscripts are finally accepted for publication in the Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology will be charged a minimum publication fee, so-called page charge: 50,000 KRW for Korean authors for Original Article or Pictorial Essay; 50,000 KRW for Korean authors for Case Report; and no fee for Review, Letter to the Editor, or Editorial.

Other types of manuscripts

General information and checklists are based upon same standards as original articles.

1. Review

Reviews focus on special topics and are published based upon the requests of the Editorial Board. References should be limited to a maximum of 60.

2. Case reports

Abstract: Abstracts should be a paragraph of no more than 150 words for English abstracts and 400 words for Korean abstracts. Sections such as introduction, materials and methods, and conclusion should not be organized separately in the abstract.
Introduction: The general background and clinical significance of cases should be stated concisely without the title 'introduction'.
Case report: Clinical findings introduced should be strictly limited to findings that are directly relevant to a radiological diagnosis.
Discussion: Discussion should focus on the emphasis of each case. Excessively verbose discussion should be avoided.
References: The number of references is limited to less than 10.

3. Pictorial essay

Pictorial essays provide information through figures and explanations pertaining to these figures. Unlike creative original articles, these essays mainly focus on education through figures similar to exhibitions that may be found at conferences. Essays should be assembled in the following sequence starting with an abstract, an introduction, brief statements corresponding to the results and discussion sections of original articles, references, and figure captions, comprising under 10 references and 30 figures. Acknowledgements should not be included.

4. Letters to the editors Letters to the editors should include constructive criticism or comments regarding specific articles published in the journal, a topic of general interest, or personal opinions about specific topics in the fields.